Installing Ciao from the source distribution

Author(s): Manuel Carro, Daniel Cabeza, Manuel Hermenegildo.

This describes the installation procedure for the Ciao system, including libraries and manuals, from a source distribution. For more specific details, please read also the INSTALLATION file that comes with each component of Ciao. However, in most cases following this summary suffices.


A minimal build requires:

  • A supported operating system (Linux, BSD, macOS, Windows)
  • A supported architecture (amd64, x86, arm).
  • A relatively modern C compiler (GCC or clang)
  • A POSIX-like environment (partially emulated in Windows using Cygwin or MSYS2).

Although Ciao implements its own build system, the GNU implementation of the make Unix command is (still) used internally. If any of the installation steps stop right away with make error messages, you probably need to install gmake.

Installing Emacs is highly recommended: the Ciao distribution includes a very powerful application development environment which is based on emacs and which enables, e.g., syntax coloring, source code formatting, embedded top-level, source-level debugging, context-sensitive on-line help, etc.

In any case, it is easy to use Ciao from a terminal and edit code with any editor of your choice. The top level includes some minimal editing facilities when rlwrap is available.

Finally, documentation generation in PDF format requires TeX and ImageMagick.

Installing dependencies

Depending on the operating system and package management tool, you may need to install the following dependencies (using sudo or as administrator or root user):

  • Debian/Ubuntu (14.04):
    $ apt-get install build-essential
    # Required for 32 bits compatibility mode (x86)
    $ apt-get install gcc-multilib libc6-i386 libc6-dev-i386 g++-multilib
    # Required for emacs-based IDE
    $ apt-get install emacs
    # Optionally, for rlwrap
    $ apt-get install rlwrap
    # Required for generating documentation in .pdf format
    $ apt-get install texlive texinfo imagemagick
    (valid for both x86 and arm architectures)

  • Fedora:
    $ dnf install gcc make which kernel-headers kernel-devel emacs
    # Required for emacs-based IDE
    $ dnf install emacs
    # Required for 32 bits compatibility mode (x86)
    $ dnf install glibc-devel.i686 glibc-devel libstdc++-devel.i686
    # Optionally, for rlwrap
    $ dnf install rlwrap
    # Required for generating documentation in .pdf format
    $ dnf install texlive texinfo texinfo-tex ImageMagick
    (use yum instead of dnf above in older versions of Fedora)

  • Arch Linux:
    # Optional, upgrade if needed
    $ pacman -Syu
    # Dependencies for build and development environment
    # (base-devel: includes gcc, make, which)
    $ pacman -S base-devel linux-headers
    # Required for 32 bits compatibility mode
    # NOTE: Remember to enable multilib (
    $ pacman -S lib32-glibc lib32-libstdc++5
    # Required for emacs-based IDE
    $ pacman -S emacs
    # Optionally, for rlwrap
    $ pacman -S rlwrap
    # Required for generating documentation in .pdf format
    $ pacman -S texlive-core texinfo imagemagick

  • macOS:
    • Install command line tools for Xcode (from the App store)
    • Install emacs and ImageMagick (and texinfo if needed, but recent versions of macOS include it). A software management tool like homebrew or macports is recommended, e.g. (as root/sudo):
      $ brew install emacs-mac imagemagick
    • Install TexLive. If using homebrew we recommend installing the MacTeX distribution, available from:
    • Optionally, for rlwrap:
      $ brew install rlwrap

  • FreeBSD:
    • Install GCC or clang and the following packages:
    $ pkg install gmake
    # Required for emacs-based IDE
    # (without X11)
    $ pkg install emacs-nox ImageMagick-nox expat 
    # (with X11)
    $ pkg install emacs ImageMagick expat
    # Optionally, for rlwrap
    $ pkg install rlwrap
    # Required for generating documentation in .pdf format
    $ pkg install texinfo texlive-full

  • NetBSD:
    • Install GCC or clang and the following packages:
    $ pkgin install gmake
    # Required for emacs-based IDE
    $ pkgin install emacs ImageMagick expat
    # Optionally, for rlwrap
    $ pkgin install rlwrap
    # Required for generating documentation in .pdf format
    $ pkgin install tex-texinfo texlive-collection-latex

Additional dependencies:

Official relases for the latest emacs versions can be downloaded from (See the gnu/emacs and gnu/windows/emacs directories in FTP mirrors). You can find answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ) about emacs in general at and about the Windows version at

Some advanced libraries and components, like the cost analysis, require an additional set of software packages:

# Debian/Ubuntu:
$ apt-get install g++ libgsl0-dev libgsl0ldbl
$ apt-get install default-jdk ant ant-optional
# Fedora:
$ yum install gsl gsl-devel ant gcc-c++

To install the Java JDK on Fedora, please visit Sun Java website ( and follow the installation instructions there.

Network-based installation

Ciao can be installed from the network using a curl pipe from to sh in a terminal. This is probably the fastest/easiest way to install Ciao from sources.

The network installater (for Unix) is delivered as an HTTPs redirection to (which contains the latest version of the script). The bootstrap script recognizes that it is being called without sources automatically. Examples:

curl -sSfL | sh
curl -sSfL | sh -s -- --prebuilt local-install
curl -sSfL | sh -s -- --no-prebuilt get devenv

Quick installation from source

The source code for the latest stable and development versions of Ciao is available from

Installation of Ciao from source is driven by the script (ciao-boot.bat in Windows), which bootstraps and invokes the Ciao build system.

Note: It is recommended that you read the full installation instructions. However, in most cases following this summary suffices:

  1. Type ./ configure. This command will attempt to detect the configuration options for your system automatically and select reasonable defaults.

    Options can be configured interactively using ./ configure --interactive or passed explicitly as arguments from the command-line (see ./ help for more information). In particular, make sure the location of the emacs executable is set correctly.

  2. Type ./ build. This will build executables, compile libraries, and generate the documentation.

  3. Type ./ install. This will install everything in the specified directories.

Alternatively, provides shorthands to perform configure, build, and install in a single command:

  1. Type ./ local-install. This will do a user-local installation (that will be accessible just for your user).

  2. Type ./ global-install. This will do a system-wide installation (e.g., as administrator or root user).

The system will include appropriate code at the end of your startup scripts. This will make the documentation and executables accessible, make sure the correct mode is set when opening Ciao source files in emacs, etc.

If you need more advanced control of the configuration please read the following sections.

Full installation instructions

  1. Select installation options: From the directory where the sources are stored, run:

    ./ configure

    It will perform a default configuration, where the system will be configured to run from the sources directly, and configured in the user's home directory (recommended for Ciao developers or users without admin rights).

    The option --instype=global will prepare Ciao to be installed as the system administrator (root) in a standard directory available for all users in the machine (e.g., /usr/local).

    For 32-bit builds in 64-bit architectures use the --core:m32=yes configuration flag.

    In case you want to install elsewhere, or change any of the installation options, you can use a customized configuration procedure (see ./ help for more information). The meaning of some important options is as follows:

    • --prefix: prefix for the default values of installation directories (<prefix>/bin, <prefix>/lib, etc).

    • --bindir: directory where the Ciao commands will be installed. For example, if --bindir is set to /usr/local/bin, then the Ciao compiler (ciaoc) will be stored at /usr/local/bin/ciaoc. Actually, it will be a link to ciaoc-VersionNumber. This applies also to other executables below and is done so that several versions of Ciao can coexist on the same machine. Note that the version installed latest will be the one started by default when typing ciao, ciaoc, etc.

    • The Ciao installation procedure will create a new subdirectory ciao/<vers> denoted INSTALL_CIAOROOT below --prefix. The <vers> directory indicate the Ciao system version. It allows having several Ciao versions installed simultaneously.

    • --mandir: directory where the manuals in Unix man format will be installed.

    • --infodir: directory where the manuals in info format will be installed.

  2. Build Ciao: At the ciao top level directory type ./ build.

  3. Install Ciao: To install Ciao in the directories selected in the configuration script during step 2 above, type ./ install. This will:

    • Install the executables of the Ciao program development tools (i.e., the general driver/top-level ciao, the standalone compiler ciaoc, the script interpreter ciao-shell, miscellaneous utilities, etc.) in the selected binary directory. In order to use these tools, make sure that the PATH environment variable contains such path.

    • Install the Ciao libraries under INSTALL_CIAOROOT (these will be automatically found).

    • Install the Ciao manuals in several formats (such as GNU info, html, pdf, etc.) under INSTALL_CIAOROOT and other documentation-specific paths. In order for these manuals to be found when typing M-x info within emacs, or by the standalone info and man commands, the MANPATH and INFOPATH environment variables of users both need to contain the path specified at --mandir and --infodir. Documentation in other formats can be accesed with the ciao doc command.

    • Install under INSTALL_CIAOROOT the Ciao interface with GNU emacs (which provides an interactive interface to the Ciao program development tools, as well as some other auxiliary files).

  4. Set up user environments: The installation process will modify the startup files automatically by default. If you disable this option in the configuration or you wish to switch between different installations, it would be necessary to modify the startup files manually.

    The installation process generates a ciao-env command to update the environments for sh-like and cshlike shells. It also generates a INSTALL_CIAOROOT/ciao-mode-init (for emacs) with appropriate definitions which will take care of all needed environment variable definitions and emacs mode setup.

    • For users a csh-compatible shell (csh, tcsh, ...), add to ~/.cshrc:

              if ( -x <prefix>/bin/ciao-env ) then
                 eval `<prefix>/bin/ciao-env --csh`

    • For users of an sh-compatible shell (sh, bash, ...), the installer will add to ~/.bashrc the next lines:

              if [ -x <prefix>/bin/ciao-env ]; then
                 eval "$(<prefix>/bin/ciao-env --sh)"

      This will set up things so that the Ciao executables are found and you can access the Ciao system manuals using the info command. Note that, depending on your shell, you may have to log out and back in for the changes to take effect.

    • Also, if you use emacs (highly recommended) the install will add the next line to your ~/.emacs file:

              (load-file "INSTALL_CIAOROOT/ciao-site-file.el")
              (if (file-exists-p "INSTALL_CIAOROOT/ciao-site-file.el")
                (load-file "INSTALL_CIAOROOT/ciao-site-file.el")

    If you are installing Ciao globally in a multi-user machine, make sure that you instruct all users that to do the same. If you are the system administrator, the previous steps can be done once and for all, and globally for all users by including the lines above in the central startup scripts (e.g., in Linux /etc/bashrc, /etc/csh.login, /etc/csh.cshrc, /etc/skel, /usr/share/emacs/.../lisp/, etc.).

  5. Check installation / read documentation: You may now want to check your installation (see Checking for correct installation on Unix) and read the documentation. There are special “getting started” sections at the beginning of the manual.

If you have any problems you may want to check Troubleshooting.


The system can be uninstalled by typing ./ uninstall in the top directory. To ensure that this process works, configuration should have not changed since installation, so that the same directories are cleaned.

Checking for correct installation on Unix

If everything has gone well, several applications and tools should be available to a normal user. Try the following while logged in as a normal user (important in order to check that permissions are set up correctly):

  • Typing ciao (or ciaosh) should start the typical Prolog-style top-level shell.

  • In the top-level shell, Ciao library modules should load correctly. Type for example use_module(library(dec10_io)) --you should get back a prompt with no errors reported.

  • To exit the top level shell, type halt. as usual, or ^D.

  • Typing ciaoc should produce the help message from the Ciao standalone compiler.

  • Typing ciao-shell should produce a message saying that no code was found. This is a Ciao application which can be used to write scripts written in Ciao, i.e., files which do not need any explicit compilation to be run.

Also, the following documentation-related actions should work:

  • If the info program is installed, typing info should produce a list of manuals which should include Ciao manual(s) in a separate area (you may need to log out and back in so that your shell variables are reinitialized for this to work).

  • Typing ciao doc alldocs should open a series of Ciao-related manuals in a WWW browser.

  • Typing man ciao should produce a man page with some very basic general information on Ciao (and pointing to the on-line manuals).

  • The documentation directory should contain the manual also in the other formats such as pdf.

Finally, if emacs is installed, after starting it (typing emacs) the following should work:

  • Typing ^H i (or in the menus Help->Manuals->Browse Manuals with Info) should open a list of manuals in info format in which the Ciao manual(s) should appear.

  • When opening a Ciao file, i.e., a file with .pl or .pls ending, using ^X^Ffilename (or using the menus) the code should appear highlighted according to syntax (e.g., comments in red), and Ciao/Prolog menus should appear in the menu bar on top of the emacs window.

  • Loading the file using the Ciao/Prolog menu (or typing ^C l) should start in another emacs buffer the Ciao toplevel shell and load the file. You should now be able to switch the the toplevel shell and make queries from within emacs.

Note: when using emacs it is very convenient to swap the locations of the (normally not very useful) Caps Lock key and the (very useful in emacs) Ctrl key on the keyboard. How to do this is explained in the emacs frequently asked questions FAQs (see the emacs download instructions for their location).

Cleaning up the source directory

After (global) installation, the source directory can be cleaned up using ./ realclean, leaves the distribution is its original form, throwing away any intermediate files (as well as any unneeded files left behind by the Ciao developers), while still allowing recompilation.

Environment variables used by Ciao executables

The executables generated by the Ciao compiler (including the ciao development tools themselves) locate automatically where the Ciao engine and libraries have been installed, since those paths are stored as defaults in the engine and compiler at installation time. Thus, there is no need for setting any environment variables in order to run Ciao executables (on a single architecture -- see Multiarchitecture installation for running on multiple architectures).

However, the default paths can be overridden by using the environment variable CIAOROOT, which tell the Ciao executables where to look for engines and system libraries.

Multiarchitecture installation

In order to perform a multi-architecture installation, it is possible to repeat successively the build and installation process for several architectures from different machines sharing part of their filesystem.

The Ciao build and installation process maintains separate name spaces for platform- and architecture-dependant binaries (like the engine binary, or .so or .dll gluecode files for the foreign interface). Portable Ciao applications (i.e., except self-contained standalone executables) can run on several machines with different architectures without any need for recompiling, provided the Ciao engine and libraries are correctly installed.

Installation and compilation under Windows

There are two possibilities in order to install Ciao on Windows machines:

  • Installing from the Windows precompiled distribution. This is the easiest since it requires no compilation and is highly recommended. This is described in Installing Ciao from a Win32 binary distribution.

  • Installing the standard Ciao (Unix) system source distribution and compiling it under Windows. This is somewhat more complex and currently requires the (freely available) Cygnus Win32 development libraries --described below.

In order to compile Ciao for Win32 environments you need to have the (public domain) Cygnus Win32 and development libraries installed in your system. Compilation should be performed preferably under Windows NT-type systems.

  • Thus, the first step, if Cygnus Win32 is not installed in your system, is to download it (from, e.g., and install it. The compilation process also requires that the executables rm.exe, sh.exe, and uname.exe from the Cygnus distribution be copied under /bin prior to starting the process (if these executables are not available under /bin the compilation process will produce a number of errors and eventually stop prematurely).

  • Assuming all of the above is installed, type ./ allwin32. This will compile both the engine and the Ciao libraries. In this process, system libraries that are normally linked dynamically under Unix (i.e., those for which .so dynamically loadable files are generated) are linked statically into the engine (this is done instead of generating .dlls because of a limitation in the current version of the Cygnus Win32 environment). No actual installation is made at this point, i.e., this process leaves things in a similar state as if you had just downloaded and uncompressed the precompiled distribution. Thus, in order to complete the installation you should now:

  • Follow now the instructions in Installing Ciao from a Win32 binary distribution.

A further note regarding the executables generated by the Ciao compiler and top-level: the same considerations given in Installing Ciao from a Win32 binary distribution apply regarding .bat files, etc. However, in a system in which Cygnus Win32 is installed these executables can also be used in a very simple way. In fact, the executables can be run as in Unix by simply typing their name at the bash shell command line without any associated .bat files. This only requires that the bash shell which comes with Cygnus Win32 be installed and accessible: simply, make sure that /bin/sh.exe exists.