# Constraint programming over finite domains

**Author(s):**José Manuel Gómez Pérez, Manuel Carro.

`clpfd`which provides similar features.

This package is a very preliminary implementation of a finite domain solver. Examples can be found in the source and library directories.

- SEND + MORE = MONEY:

:- use_package(fd). :- use_module(library(prolog_sys), [statistics/2]). :- use_module(library(format)). smm(SMM) :- statistics(runtime,_), do_smm(SMM), statistics(runtime,[_, Time]), format("Used ~d milliseconds~n", Time). do_smm(X) :- X = [S,E,N,D,M,O,R,Y], X in 0 .. 9, all_different(X), M .>. 0, S .>. 0, 1000*S + 100*E + 10*N + D + 1000*M + 100*O + 10*R + E .=. 10000*M + 1000*O + 100*N + 10*E + Y, labeling(X).

- Queens:

:- use_package(fd). :- use_module(library(prolog_sys), [statistics/2]). :- use_module(library(format)). :- use_module(library(aggregates)). :- use_module(library(lists), [length/2]). queens(N, Qs) :- statistics(runtime,_), do_queens(N, Qs), statistics(runtime,[_, Time]), format("Used ~d milliseconds~n", Time). do_queens(N, Qs):- constrain_values(N, N, Qs), all_different(Qs),!, labeling(Qs). constrain_values(0, _N, []). constrain_values(N, Range, [X|Xs]):- N > 0, X in 1 .. Range, N1 is N - 1, constrain_values(N1, Range, Xs), no_attack(Xs, X, 1). no_attack([], _Queen, _Nb). no_attack([Y|Ys], Queen, Nb):- Nb1 is Nb + 1, no_attack(Ys, Queen, Nb1), Queen .<>. Y + Nb, Queen .<>. Y - Nb.

## Usage and interface

**Library usage:**`:- use_package(fd).`or`:- module(...,...,[fd]).`**Exports:***Predicates:*`labeling/1`,`pitm/2`,`choose_var/3`,`choose_free_var/2`,`choose_var_nd/2`,`choose_value/2`,`retrieve_range/2`,`retrieve_store/2`,`glb/2`,`lub/2`,`bounds/3`,`retrieve_list_of_values/2`.*Regular Types:*`fd_item/1`,`fd_range/1`,`fd_subrange/1`,`fd_store/1`,`fd_store_entity/1`.

**New operators defined:**`.=./2`[700,xfx],`.<>./2`[700,xfx],`.<./2`[700,xfx],`.=<./2`[700,xfx],`.>./2`[700,xfx],`.>=./2`[700,xfx],`../2`[500,yfx],`.&./2`[600,xfy],`in/2`[700,xfy].**Imports:***Packages:*`prelude`,`nonpure`,`assertions`,`regtypes`,`isomodes`.

## Documentation on exports

**Usage:**`fd_item(FD_item)`

FD_item is a finite domain entity, i.e. either a finite domains variable or an integer.

**Usage:**`fd_store(FD_store)`

FD_store is a representation of the constraint store of a finite domain entity.

**Usage:**`labeling(Vars)`

Implements the labeling process. Assigns values to the input variables Vars. On exit all variables are instantiated to a consistent value. On backtracking, the predicate returns all possible assignments. No labeling heuristics implemented so far, i.e. variables are instantiated in their order of appearance.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(basic_props:list/2)Vars is a list of fd_items.

**Usage:**`pitm(V,MiddlePoint)`

Returns in MiddlePoint the intermediate value of the range of V. In case V is a ground integer value the returned value is V itself.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)V is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)MiddlePoint is a free variable.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_item/1)V is a finite domain entity, i.e. either a finite domains variable or an integer.

(basic_props:int/1)MiddlePoint is an integer.

**Usage:**`choose_var(ListOfVars,Var,RestOfVars)`

Returns a finite domain item Var from a list of fd items ListOfVars and the rest of the list RestOfVarsin a deterministic way. Currently it always returns the first item of the list.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)ListOfVars is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)Var is a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)RestOfVars is a free variable.

(basic_props:list/2)ListOfVars is a list of fd_items.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_item/1)Var is a finite domain entity, i.e. either a finite domains variable or an integer.

(basic_props:list/2)RestOfVars is a list of fd_items.

**Usage:**`choose_free_var(ListOfVars,Var)`

Returns a free variable Var from a list of fd items ListOfVars. Currently it always returns the first free variable of the list.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)ListOfVars is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)Var is a free variable.

(basic_props:list/2)ListOfVars is a list of fd_items.

(term_typing:var/1)Var is a free variable.

**Usage:**`choose_var_nd(ListOfVars,Var)`

Returns non deterministically an fd item Var from a list of fd items ListOfVars .

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)ListOfVars is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)Var is a free variable.

(basic_props:list/2)ListOfVars is a list of fd_items.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_item/1)Var is a finite domain entity, i.e. either a finite domains variable or an integer.

**Usage:**`choose_value(Var,Value)`

Produces an integer value Value from the domain of Var. On backtracking returns all possible values for Var.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)Var is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)Value is a free variable.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_item/1)Var is a finite domain entity, i.e. either a finite domains variable or an integer.

(basic_props:int/1)Value is an integer.

**Usage:**`retrieve_range(Var,Range)`

Returns in Range the range of an fd item Var.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)Var is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)Range is a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)Var is a free variable.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_range/1)Range is the range of a finite domain entity.

**Usage:**`retrieve_store(Var,Store)`

Returns in Store a representation of the constraint store of an fd item Var.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)Var is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)Store is a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)Var is a free variable.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_store/1)Store is a representation of the constraint store of a finite domain entity.

**Usage:**`glb(Var,LowerBound)`

Returns in LowerBound the lower bound of the range of Var.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)Var is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)LowerBound is a free variable.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_item/1)Var is a finite domain entity, i.e. either a finite domains variable or an integer.

(basic_props:int/1)LowerBound is an integer.

**Usage:**`lub(Var,UpperBound)`

Returns in UpperBound the upper bound of the range of Var.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)Var is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)UpperBound is a free variable.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_item/1)Var is a finite domain entity, i.e. either a finite domains variable or an integer.

(basic_props:int/1)UpperBound is an integer.

**Usage:**`bounds(Var,LowerBound,UpperBound)`

Returns in LowerBound and UpperBound the lower and upper bounds of the range of Var.

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)Var is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)LowerBound is a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)UpperBound is a free variable.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_item/1)Var is a finite domain entity, i.e. either a finite domains variable or an integer.

(basic_props:int/1)LowerBound is an integer.

(basic_props:int/1)UpperBound is an integer.

**Usage:**`retrieve_list_of_values(Var,ListOfValues)`

Returns in ListOfValues an enumeration of al the values in the range of Var

*The following properties should hold at call time:*

(term_typing:nonvar/1)Var is currently a term which is not a free variable.

(term_typing:var/1)ListOfValues is a free variable.

(user(/home/ciaobot/ciaobot-data/pm_ubuntu/source/master/CiaoDE/ciao/contrib/fd/fd_doc):fd_item/1)Var is a finite domain entity, i.e. either a finite domains variable or an integer.

(basic_props:list/2)ListOfValues is a list of ints.